Conference article

SweLLex: second language learners’ productive vocabulary

Elena Volodina
University of Gothenburg, Sweden

Ildikó Pilán
University of Gothenburg, Sweden

Lorena Llozhi
University of Gothenburg, Sweden

Baptiste Degryse
Universit´e catholique de Louvain, Belgium

Thomas François
Universit´e catholique de Louvain, Belgium / FNRS Post-doctoral Researcher

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Published in: Proceedings of the joint workshop on NLP for Computer Assisted Language Learning and NLP for Language Acquisition at SLTC, Umeå, 16th November 2016

Linköping Electronic Conference Proceedings 130:10, p. 76-84

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Published: 2016-11-15

ISBN: 978-91-7685-633-8

ISSN: 1650-3686 (print), 1650-3740 (online)


This paper presents a new lexical resource for learners of Swedish as a second language, SweLLex, and a know-how behind its creation. We concentrate on L2 learners’ productive vocabulary, i.e. words that they are actively able to produce, rather than the lexica they comprehend (receptive vocabulary). The proposed list covers productive vocabulary used by L2 learners in their essays. Each lexical item on the list is connected to its frequency distribution over the six levels of proficiency defined by the Common European Framework of Reference (CEFR) (Council of Europe, 2001}. To make this list a more reliable resource, we experiment with normalizing L2 word-level errors by replacing them with their correct equivalents. SweLLex has been tested in a prototype system for automatic CEFR level classification of essays as well as in a visualization tool aimed at exploring L2 vocabulary contrasting receptive and productive vocabulary usage at different levels of language proficiency.


Productive vocabulary scope, CEFR, normalization of learner writing, Swedish as a second language


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