Conference article

Non-Projectivity in Serbian: Analysis of Formal and Linguistic Properties

Aleksandra Miletic
CLLE, CNRS & University of Toulouse, France

Assaf Urieli
CLLE, CNRS & University of Toulouse and Joliciel Informatique, France

Download article

Published in: Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Dependency Linguistics (Depling 2017), September 18-20, 2017, Università di Pisa, Italy

Linköping Electronic Conference Proceedings 139:17, s. 135-144

Show more +

Published: 2017-09-13

ISBN: 978-91-7685-467-9

ISSN: 1650-3686 (print), 1650-3740 (online)


This paper presents insights into nonprojective relations in Serbian based on the analysis of an 81K token gold-standard corpus manually annotated for dependencies. We provide a formal profile of the non-projective dependencies found in the corpus, as well as a linguistic analysis of the underlying structures. We compare the observed properties of Serbian to those of other languages found in existing studies on non-projectivity.


No keywords available


Anne Abeillé and Danièle Godard. 2002. The syntactic structure of French auxiliaries. Language, 78(3):404–452.

Željko Agi´c and Nikola Ljubeši´c. 2015. Universal Dependencies for Croatian (that work for Serbian, too). In The 5th Workshop on Balto-Slavic Natural Language Processing (BSNLP 2015).

Željko Agic, Danijela Merkler, and Daša Berovic. 2013. Parsing Croatian and Serbian by using Croatian dependency treebanks. In Proceedings of the Fourth Workshop on Statistical Parsing of Morphologically-Rich Languages.

Riyaz Ahmad Bhat and Dipti Misra Sharma. 2012. Non-projective structures in Indian language treebanks. In Proceedings of the 11th Workshop on Treebanks and Linguistic Theories (TLT11), pages 25–30.

Marie Candito, Benoît Crabbé, and Mathieu Falco. 2009. Dépendances syntaxiques de surface pour le français. Technical report, Paris 7.

Greville Corbett, 1987. The World’s Major Languages, chapter Serbo-Croat, pages 391–490. Oxford University Press.

Denys Duchier and Ralph Debusmann. 2001. Topological dependency trees: A constraint-based account of linear precedence. In Proceedings of the 39th Annual Meeting on Association for Computational Linguistics, pages 180–187. Association for Computational Linguistics.

Kim Gerdes and Sylvain Kahane. 2001. Word order in German: A formal dependency grammar using a topological hierarchy. In Proceedings of the 39th annual meeting on association for computational linguistics, pages 220–227. Association for Computational Linguistics.

Thomas Groß and Timothy Osborne. 2009. Toward a practical dependency grammar theory of discontinuities. SKY Journal of Linguistics, 22:43–90.

Thomas Groß and Timothy Osborne. 2015. The Dependency Status of Function Words: Auxiliaries. In Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Dependency Linguistics (DepLing2015), pages 111–120.

Thomas Groß. 2011. Clitics in Dependency Morphology. In Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Dependency Linguistics (DepLing 2011).

Jan Hajic, Jarmila Panevová, Eva Burá?nová, Zdenka Urešová, and Alla Bémová. 1999. Annotations at analytical level. Instructions for annotators. UK MFF ÚFAL, Praha, Czech Republic. URL (2012-03-18).

Eva Hajicová, Jirí Havelka, Petr Sgall, Katerina Veselá, and Daniel Zeman. 2004. Issues of Projectivity in the Prague Dependency Treebank. Prague Bull. Math. Linguistics, 81:5–22.

Jirí Havelka. 2007. Beyond Projectivity: Multilingual Evaluation of Constraints and Measures on Non-Projective Structures. In ANNUAL MEETING-ASSOCIATION FOR COMPUTATIONAL LINGUISTICS, volume 45, page 608.

Milka Ivic, editor. 2005. Sintaksa savremenog srpskog jezika. Institut za srpski jezik SANU, Beograd.

Bojana Jakovljevic, Aleksandar Kovacevic, Milan Secujski, and Maja Markovic. 2014. A dependency treebank for Serbian: Initial experiments. In International Conference on Speech and Computer, pages 42–49. Springer.

Iliyana Krapova. 1995. Auxiliaries and complex tenses in Bulgarian. In W. Browne, E. Domisch, N. Kondrašova, and D. Zec, editors, Annual workshop on Formal approaches to Slavic linguistics. The Cornell meeting, pages 320–344. Ann Arbor: Michigan Slavic Publications.

Marco Kuhlmann and Joakim Nivre. 2006. Mildly Non-Projective Dependency Structures. In Proceedings of the COLING/ACL on Main conference poster sessions, pages 507–514. Association for Computational Linguistics.

Anna Kupsc and Jesse Tseng. 2005. A new HPSG approach to Polish auxiliary constructions. In S. Müller, editor, Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Head-Driven Phrase Structure Grammar, pages 253–273. Stanford: CSLI Publications.

Francesco Mambrini and Marco Passarotti. 2013. Non-Projectivity in the Ancient Greek Dependency Treebank. In Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Dependency Linguistics (DepLing 2013), volume 177.

Prashanth Mannem, Himani Chaudhry, and Akshar Bharati. 2009. Insights into non-projectivity in Hindi. In Proceedings of the ACL-IJCNLP 2009 Student Research Workshop, pages 10–17. Association for Computational Linguistics.

Jasmina Milicevic. 2009. Serbian Auxiliary Verbs: Syntactic Heads or Dependents? In W. Cichocki, editor, Proceedings of the 31st Annual Conference of the Atlantic Provinces Linguistics Association, pages 43–53. PAMAPLA 31.

John Robert Ross. 1967. Constraints on variables in Syntax. Ph.D. thesis, MIT.

Tanja Samardžic, Mirjana Starovic, Željko Agic, and Nikola Ljubeši´c. 2017. Universal Dependencies for Serbian in Comparison with Croatian and Other Slavic Languages. In The 6th Workshop on Balto-Slavic Natural Language Processing (BSNLP 2017).

Živojin Stanojcic and Ljubomir Popovic. 2012. Gramatika srpskog jezika. Zavod za udžbenike.

Citations in Crossref