Eye Tracking Based Analysis of Effects of Motif Composition on Imressions of Paintings

Yuka Nojo
Graduate School of Global Information and Telecommunication Studies, Waseda University, Japan

Ladda ner artikel

Ingår i: KEER2014. Proceedings of the 5th Kanesi Engineering and Emotion Research; International Conference; Linköping; Sweden; June 11-13

Linköping Electronic Conference Proceedings 100:72, s. 861-875

Visa mer +

Publicerad: 2014-06-11

ISBN: 978-91-7519-276-5

ISSN: 1650-3686 (tryckt), 1650-3740 (online)


The presence of pictures that people recognize as great beyond the borders of cultural differences over 100 years could suggest that such paintings would have certain aesthetic elements in common; and if people are able to recognize them through a shared sense of beauty; it might be able to study what kinds of properties influence people’s evaluation of paintings. This paper investigates influences of motif compositions on impressions of pictures. In the first experiment; participants were asked to answer their impressions of the printings using two kinds of rating scales: information rate scale and semantic differential scale; where “symmetry”; “complexity” and “order” are defined as the elements of “beauty”. Results showed that these three perceptual features influence strongly on people’s impressions. However; this experiment poses some questions. Do participants sense the existence of the golden ratio from motif composition? In recognizing that the ratio had been broken; did their impressions change as a result? Do their impressions change according to degrees of symmetries of motif; no matter if the golden ratio exists? To find answers to these questions; we conduct the second experiment to analyze the relationship between motif compositions and gaze movements detected by an eye-tracking system.


Beauty of Paintings; Motif Composition; Golden Ratio; Eye-tracking


[Book] Arnheim; R. (1974). Art and visual perception: a psychology of the creative eye. University of California Press; San Francisco; CA; USA.

[Book] Berlyne; D. E. (1970). Novelty; complexity and hedonic value. Perception and Psychophysics; 8(5); pp.279-286.

[Book] Birkoff; G. D. (1933). Aesthetic Measure. Harvard University Press; Cambridge; MA;USA; pp3-15.

[Journal article] Brown; W.; Price; M. E.; Kang. J; Pound.; N; Zhao.; & Yu; H. (2008);Fluctuating asymmetry and preferences for sex-typical bodily characteristics; Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America; Vol.105; No.35; pp.12938-12943.

[Book] Eisenman; R. (1967). Complexity-simplicity:1. Preference for symmetry and rejection of complexity. Psychonomic Science; 8(4); pp.169-170

[Book] Feagin; S.L. (1996). Reading with feeling; the aesthetics of appreciation; Cornell University Press; New York; USA.

[Book] Franklin; M.B.; Becklen. R. C.; & Doyle; C. L. (1993). The Influence of titles on how paintings are seen; Leonardo. 26(2); pp.103-108.

[Journal article] Fujimura; T. & Suzuki; N.(2007).The effects of temporal information and configuration changes on the recognition of emotional facial expressions: From a dimensional perspective; The Japanese Journal of Cognitive Psychology; Vol.5; pp.51-53.

[Non-English Book] Fukumoto; K. (1947). ?????[ The art of Hokusai]. Hokkoh shobo publishing Co.; LTD; Tokyo; JAPAN.

[Book] Gombrich; E. H. (1984). The sense of order; a study in the psychology of decorative art. Phaidon Press;Oxford; Great Britain.

[Book] Gombrich; E. H. (1995). The story of art. Phaidon Press; Oxford; Great Britain.

[Non-English Book] Gregory;L;R. (1997). Eye and Brain; Princeton University Press; Princeton; USA.

[Non-English Book] Haltmann; N. (2001). ASTHETIK; Sakuhinsha; Tokyo; JAPAN.

[Book] Herzberger; B.; Rentschler; I. & Epstein; D. (1989). Beauty and the Brain; Biological Aspects of Aesthetics; Birkhauser Basel Boston Press; Boston; USA.

[Book] Humphery; D. (1997). Preferences in symmetries in drawings: Asymmetries between ages and sexes; Empirical studies of arts; 5(1); pp. 41-60.

[Non-English journal article] Ishibashi; Y. & Takahashi; S. (2006). The influence of information about drawing technique on impression of paintings; Japanese Journal of Psychology; 77(2); pp.124-131.

[Non-English book] Iwanaka; T.(1983). ????-??????????-[The composition – from Cezanne to Hokusai]; Iwasaki publishing Co.; LTD.

[Journal article] Jacobsen; T. & Hofel; L. (2002). Aesthetic Judgments of novel graphic patterns: analysis of individual judgments. Perceptual and Motor Skills; 95(3); pp.755-766.

[Book] Kant; I. (original 1790; translated 2005). Critique of Judgment; Dover Publications; New York; USA.

[Non-English journal article] Kikuchi; M. & Oguni; S. (2005). Relation between Contour Integration and Figure-Ground Perception; The institute of electronics; information and communication engineers; 104(760); pp59-62.

[Non-English journal article] Kobayashi; T.(1996). ????????(1)-(3); [Hokusai’s letters]; Edo Literature; Perikansha publishing Co.; LTD; Tokyo; JPAN; vol.15; pp.188-199; vol.16; pp.184-195; vol17; pp.172-184.

[Journal article] Leder; H.; Belke; B.; Oeberst; A.; and Augustin; D. (2004): A Model of Aesthetic Appreciation and Aesthetic Judgments; British Journal of Psychology; Vol.95; No.4; pp.489-508.

[Book] Leibniz; G; W. (1765; translated 1987). Nouveaux essais sur l’entendement humain [Essays on Human Understanding]; Misuzu publishing Co.; LTD; Tokyo; JAPAN.

[Book] Livio; M. (2003). The Golden Ratio: The Story of PHI; the World’s Most Astonishing Number. Broadway Books; New York; USA.

[Non-English journal article] Matsubara; T. (2008). Analysis of Horyuji Mural Painting from the Golden Ratio of body proportion of Bosatsu statue; Buddhism art; The Mainichi Newspapers Press.; Tokyo; Japan; 296; pp.9-29.

[Book] Merabian; A. & Russell; J. A. (1974). An approach to environmental psychology; MIT Press; London; Great Britain; pp.77-94.

[Non-English Book] Nakajima;Y.(2007).???????-??????????-[Information Human sciences –from a standpoint of cognitive psychology ]; Corona publishing Co.; LTD; Tokyo; JAPAN; p138.

[Non-English Book] Nakatani;Y. & Fujimoto;K.(2002).????????[Psychology of aesthetic and design]; Kitaohji Shobo Publishing Co.; LTD; Tokyo; JAPAN; p14-28.

[Non-English article] Narasaki; M.(1980).?????????o[Hokusai and Thirty-six views of Mount Fuji]; ?????[Monthly cultural assets]; Daiichi Houki Publishing Co.; LTD; Tokyo; JAPAN; vol.202; p6-13.

[Journal article] Nojo; Y.; Muramatsu; K.; Kojima; K.; and Matsui; T. (2013).The effects of motif composition on impressions of paintings: In the case of Katsushika Hokusai’s “Thirty-six views of Mount Fuji”; International journal of affective engineering; Vol.12; No2; pp.127-133.

[Non-English article] Ogawa;K & Inui;T.(2011). Neural representation of object-centered coordinates in humans : an fMRI study; The Institute of Electronics; Information & Communication Engineers; Vol.110; No.387; pp.75-80;

[Journal article] Reber; J; R.; Schwarz; N.; & Winkielman; P. (2004).Processing Fluency and Aesthetic Pleasure: Is Beauty in the Perceiver’s Processing Experience?; Personality and Social Psychology Review; 8(4).

[Journal article] Restak; R.M. (1979). Brain potentials – signaling our inner thoughts; Psychology today; Vol.12; p.10.

[Journal article] Rusell; J.A.; Weiss; A. & Mendelsohn; G.A. (1989). Affect Grid: single-item scale of pleasure and arousal. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology; Vol57; pp.493-502.

[Book] Santayana; G. (1995; Original work published in 1896). The sense of beauty; Dover Publications; New York; USA; pp11-31.

[Non-English Book] Shioiri; S. (2007). ?? [The vision]; Asakura publishing Co.; LTD; Tokyo; JAPAN.

[Journal article] Sugawara;T.; Yamada; N.; Sadoyama; T.; Hosoya; S.; & Igushi; T. (2004). Geometrical Features of the Attractive Smile; Collection of papers of Kansei engineering and emotion research; 5(1); pp.53-58.

[Book] Solso; L; R. (1994). Cognition and the visual arts; Firs Mit Press paperback edition; Massachusetts; USA.

[Non-English article] Taketani;Y. & Kawanishi;T.(2011). Effects of Gestalt Principles on Object-Based Selection when Two Principles are Combined: An Event-elated Potential Study; The Institute of Electronics; Information & Communication Engineers; Vol.HIP2011; No.56; pp.83-88.

[Book] Tatarkiewicz; W.; edited by Harrell; J. (1970). History of aesthetics vol.1;2;3; Polish Scientific Publishers; Warszawa; Poland.

[Non-English article from magazine] Tsuji; T.(1972). ???????(??·??????) [Hokusai’s eyes and his magic]; ???[Subaru]; Tokyo; JAPAN; Vol8; No.2; pp.60-68.

[Non-English Book] International Ukiyo-e Society (1994).????? [The study of Hokusai]; International Ukiyo-e Society; Tokyo; JAPAN.

[Non-English Book] Yanagi; R.(1957).???[The composition]; Bijutsu Shuppan Holding Co.; LTD;Tokyo; JAPAN.

[Non-English article from magazine] Yanagi; R. (1957). ???????????????[Study of Hokusai’s composition and its modernism]; ???[Mizue]; Vol662-625; Tokyo; JAPAN.

[Non-English article] Yoshiktaka; A.; Nishida. K.; Tsukada. H.(2009). Detection of the state of attention based on temporal frequency of eye fixation in painting appreciation; Information processing society of Japan; Vol.50; No.5; pp.1467-1476.

[Book] Zeki; S. (2000). Inner vision: An exploration of art and the brain; Oxford University Press; New York; USA.

Citeringar i Crossref