Coupled Simulation between CFD and Multizone Models Based on Modelica Buildings Library to Study Indoor Environment Control

Wei Tian
Department of Civil, Architectural, and Environmental Engineering, University of Miami, USA

Wangda Zuo
Department of Civil, Architectural, and Environmental Engineering, University of Miami, USA

Thomas Sevilla
Department of Civil, Architectural, and Environmental Engineering, University of Miami, USA

Michael Sohn
Sustainable Energy Systems Group, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, USA

Ladda ner artikelhttp://dx.doi.org/10.3384/ecp1713255

Ingår i: Proceedings of the 12th International Modelica Conference, Prague, Czech Republic, May 15-17, 2017

Linköping Electronic Conference Proceedings 132:5, s. 55-61

Visa mer +

Publicerad: 2017-07-04

ISBN: 978-91-7685-575-1

ISSN: 1650-3686 (tryckt), 1650-3740 (online)


Multizone models are widely used in building airflow and energy performance simulations because they are often suitable for the analysis needed, and due to their fast computation speed. However, the results provided by the multizone models are sometimes limited due to the underlying well-mixed assumption of the air in a zone (e.g., a room). For zones where this assumption is not suitable, a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) models may be needed. This paper proposes a coupled simulation model between the multizone and CFD model, which in the paper is fast fluid dynamics, a freely available and publicly released program. The model allows the simulation of a dynamic interaction between airflow and Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioning (HVAC) systems for buildings with stratified airflow distribution in some of the zones. The approach is implemented using Modelica and its buildings library. In this presentation, we first discuss the design and implementation of a data synchronization strategy between the two models. We then show a possible validation of the implementation by comparing the simulated results with experimental data from previous research. Finally, we perform a case study by linking a Variable Air Volume (VAV) terminal box to space in order to evaluate the capability of the coupled simulation. Finally, further research needs are discussed at the end of the paper.


CFD, Multizone, Coupled Simulation


Bonvini, M., M. Popovac, and A. Leva. 2014. Sub-Zonal Computational Fluid Dynamics in an Object-Oriented Modelling Framework. Proceedings of the Building Simulation.

Chen, Q. 2009. Ventilation Performance Prediction for Buildings: A Method Overview and Recent Applications. Building and Environment, 44(4):848-58.

Chen, Q., and W. Xu. 1998. A Zero-Equation Turbulence Model for Indoor Airflow Simulation. Energy and Buildings, 28 (2):137-44.

Chorin, A. J. 1967. A Numerical Method for Solving Incompressible Viscous Flow Problems. Journal of Computational Physics, 2 (1):12-26.

Courant, R., E. Isaacson, and M. Rees. 1952. On the Solution of Nonlinear Hyperbolic Differential Equations by Finite Differences. Communications on Pure and Applied Mathematics, 5 (3):243-55.

Crawley, D. B., L. K. Lawrie, F. C. Winkelmann, W. F. Buhl, Y. J. Huang, C. O. Pedersen, R. K. Strand, et al. 2001. Energyplus: Creating a New-Generation Building Energy Simulation Program. Energy and Buildings, 33 (4):319-31.

Department of Energy. 2011. "Building Energy Data Book."In. Dols, W. S., and G. N. Walton. 2002. Contamw 2.0 User Manual: Multizone Airflow and Contaminant Transport Analysis Software: US Department of Commerce, Technology Administration, National Institute of Standards and Technology.

Fisk, W. J. 2000. Health and Productivity Gains from Better Indoor Environments and Their Relationship with Building Energy Efficiency. Annual Review of Energy and the Environment, 25:537-66.

Fritzson, P. 1998. Modelica - a Language for Equation-Based Physical Modeling and High Performance Simulation. Applied Parallel Computing, 1541:149-60.

Jin, M., W. Zuo, and Q. Chen. 2012. Improvements of Fast Fluid Dynamics for Simulating Air Flow in Buildings. Numerical Heat Transfer, Part B: Fundamentals, 62 (6):419-38.

Kats, G. 2003. Green Building Costs and Financial Benefits: Massachusetts Technology Collaborative Boston, MA.

Klein, S. A., J. A. Duffie, and W. A. Beckman. 1976. Trnsysa Transient Simulation Program. Ashrae Transactions, 82:623.

Kropf, S., and G. Zweifel. 2001. Validation of the Building Simulation Program Ida-Ice According to Cen 13791 “Thermal Performance of Buildings–Calculation of Internal Temperatures of a Room in Summer without Mechanical Cooling–General Criteria and Validation Procedures”. Hochschule Technik+ Architektur Luzern. HLK Engineering.

Li, D., W. Tian, Z. Wetter, Wangda, and Michael. 2016. Simulation Using in Situ Adaptive Tabulation and Fast Fluid Dynamics. IBPSA-USA Journal, 6 (1).

Liu, G., J. Zhang, and A. Dasu. 2012. Review of Literature on Terminal Box Control, Occupancy Sensing Technology and Multi-Zone Demand Control Ventilation (Dcv). US Department of Energy, Tech. Rep.

Norrefeldt, V., G. Grün, and K. Sedlbauer. 2012. Vepzo–Velocity Propagating Zonal Model for the Estimation of the Airflow Pattern and Temperature Distribution in a Confined Space. Building and Environment, 48:183-94.

Strachan, P., G. Kokogiannakis, and I. Macdonald. 2008. History and Development of Validation with the Esp-R Simulation Program. Building and Environment, 43 (4):601-9.

Tian, W., A. T. Sevilla, D. Li, W. Zuo, and M. Wetter. 2017. Fast and Self-Learning Indoor Airflow Simulation Based on in Situ Adaptive Tabulation. Journal of Building Performance Simulation.

Tian, W., T. A. Sevilla, and W. Zuo. 2017. A Systematic Evaluation of Accelerating Indoor Airflow Simulations Using Cross-Platform Parallel Computing. Journal of Building Performance Simulation, 10 (3):243-55. doi: 10.1080/19401493.2016.1212933.

Tian, W., and W. Zuo. 2013. Literature Review and Research Needs to Couple Building Energy and Airflow Simulation. Proceedings of the Proceedings of the the APEC Conference on Low-carbon Towns and Physical Energy Storage.

Wang, L. 2007. Coupling of Multizone and CFD Programs for Building Airflow and Contaminant Transport Simulations: ProQuest.

Wang, L., and Q. Chen. 2005. On Solution Characteristics of Coupling of Multizone and CFD Programs in Building Air Distribution Simulation. Proceedings of the Proceedings of the 9 th International IBPSA Conference (Building Simulation 2005), Montreal, Canada.

Wang, L., and Q. Chen. 2007. Validation of a Coupled Multizone-CFD Program for Building Airflow and Contaminant Transport Simulations. HVAC&R Research, 13 (2):267-81.

Wang, L. L., and Q. Chen. 2008. Evaluation of Some Assumptions Used in Multizone Airflow Network Models. Building and Environment, 43 (10):1671-7.

Wang, M., and Q. Chen. 2009. Assessment of Various Turbulence Models for Transitional Flows in an Enclosed Environment (Rp-1271). HVAC&R Research, 15 (6):1099-119.

Wetter, M. 2006a. Multizone Airflow Model in Modelica. Proc. of the 5-th International Modelica Conference, 2:431-40.

Wetter, M. 2006b. Multizone Airflow Model in Modelica. Proceedings of the Proc. of the 5-th International Modelica Conference.

Wetter, M. 2009. Modelica-Based Modeling and Simulation to Support Research and Development in Building Energy and Control Systems. Journal of Building Performance Simulation, 2 (2):143-61.

Wetter, M., W. Zuo, T. S. Nouidui, and X. Pang. 2014. Modelica Buildings Library. Journal of Building Performance Simulation, 7 (4):253-70. doi:10.1080/19401493.2013.765506.

Yang, P. 2013. "Real-Time Building Airflow Simulation Aided by GPU and FFD." Concordia University.

Zhai, Z., Q. Chen, P. Haves, and J. H. Klems. 2002. On Approaches to Couple Energy Simulation and Computational Fluid Dynamics Programs. Building and Environment, 37 (8):857-64.

Zuo, W., and Q. Chen. 2009. Real-Time or Faster-Than-Real-Time Simulation of Airflow in Buildings. Indoor Air, 19 (1):33-44.

Zuo, W., and Q. Chen. 2010. Fast and Informative Flow Simulations in a Building by Using Fast Fluid Dynamics Model on Graphics Processing Unit. Building and Environment, 45 (3):747-57.

Zuo, W., M. Wetter, D. Li, M. Jin, W. Tian, and Q. Chen. 2014. Coupled Simulation of Indoor Environment, HVAC and Control System by Using Fast Fluid Dynamics and Modelica. Proceedings of the 2014 ASHRAE/IBPSA-USA Building Simulation Conference, Atlanta, GA, Sep. 10-12.

Zuo, W., M. Wetter, W. Tian, D. Li, M. Jin, and Q. Chen. 2016. Coupling Indoor Airflow, HVAC, Control and Building Envelope Heat Transfer in the Modelica Buildings Library. Journal of Building Performance Simulation, 9 (4):366-81.

Citeringar i Crossref