Treating Presence as a Noun — Insights Obtained from Comparing a VE and a 360° Video

Martina Tarnawski
Södertörn University, Sweden

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Ingår i: Proceedings of SIGRAD 2017, August 17-18, 2017 Norrköping, Sweden

Linköping Electronic Conference Proceedings 143:2, s. 9-16

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Publicerad: 2017-11-27

ISBN: 978-91-7685-384-9

ISSN: 1650-3686 (tryckt), 1650-3740 (online)


With 360° videos becoming more commercially available, more research is needed in order to evaluate how they are perceived by users. In this study we compare a low-budget computer-generated virtual environment to a low-budget 360° video viewed in VR mode. The Igroup Presence Questionnaire (IPQ), discomfort-scores and semi-structured interviews were used to investigate differences and similarities between the two environments. The most fruitful results were obtained from the interviews. The interviews highlight problematic aspects with presence, such as the difficulty of separating reality, real and realistic, which lead to a reconsideration of treating presence as a concept. The conclusions are that VR research should benefit from treating presence as a noun, the feeling of “being there” instead of a unitary concept. We also argue that presence should not by default be considered a goal of a VR experience or VR research.


Virtual Reality, Virtual Environment, Presence


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