RRGbank: a Role and Reference Grammar Corpus of Syntactic Structures Extracted from the Penn Treebank

Tatiana Bladier
University of Düsseldorf, Germany

Andreas van Cranenburgh
University of Groningen, The Netherlands

Kilian Evang
University of Düsseldorf, Germany

Laura Kallmeyer
University of Düsseldorf, Germany

Robin Möllemann
University of Düsseldorf, Germany

Rainer Osswald
University of Düsseldorf, Germany

Ladda ner artikel

Ingår i: Proceedings of the 17th International Workshop on Treebanks and Linguistic Theories (TLT 2018), December 13–14, 2018, Oslo University, Norway

Linköping Electronic Conference Proceedings 155:3, s. 5-16

Visa mer +

Publicerad: 2018-12-10

ISBN: 978-91-7685-137-1

ISSN: 1650-3686 (tryckt), 1650-3740 (online)


This paper presents RRGbank, a corpus of syntactic trees from the Penn Treebank automatically converted to syntactic structures following Role and Reference Grammar (RRG). RRGbank is the first large linguistic resource in the RRG community and can be used in data-driven and data-oriented downstream linguistic applications. We show challenges encountered while con- verting PTB trees to RRG structures, introduce our annotation tool, and evaluate the automatic conversion process.


Role and Reference Grammar, RRG, treebank conversion, Penn Treebank


Flickinger, D., Kordoni, V., and Zhang, Y. (2012). DeepBank: A Dynamically Annotated Treebank of the Wall Street Journal. In Proceedings of the 11th International Workshop on Treebanks and Linguistic Theories, Lisbon, Portugal.

Hockenmaier, J. and Steedman, M. (2007). CCGbank: A corpus of CCG derivations and dependency structures extracted from the Penn Treebank. Computational Linguistics, 33(3).

Hovy, E., Marcus, M., Palmer, M., Ramshaw, L., and Weischedel, R. (2006). Ontonotes: the 90% solution. In Proceedings of the human language technology conference of the NAACL, Companion Volume: Short Papers, pages 57–60. Association for Computational Linguistics.

Kallmeyer, L. (2016). On the mild context-sensitivity of k-Tree Wrapping Grammar. In Foret, A., Morrill, G., Muskens, R., Osswald, R., and Pogodalla, S., editors, Formal Grammar: 20th and 21st International Conferences, FG 2015, Barcelona, Spain, August 2015, Revised Selected Papers. FG 2016, Bozen, Italy, August 2016, Proceedings, number 9804 in Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pages 77–93, Berlin. Springer.

Kallmeyer, L. and Osswald, R. (2017). Combining Predicate-Argument Structure and Operator Projection: Clause Structure in Role and Reference Grammar. In Proceedings of the 13th International Workshop on Tree Adjoining Grammars and Related Formalisms, pages 61–70, Umeå, Sweden. Association for Computational Linguistics.

Kallmeyer, L., Osswald, R., and Van Valin, Jr., R. D. (2013). Tree Wrapping for Role and Reference Grammar. In Morrill, G. and Nederhof, M.-J., editors, Formal Grammar 2012/2013, volume 8036 of LNCS, pages 175–190. Springer.

Marcus, M., Santorini, B., and Marcinkiewicz, M. (1993). Building a Large Annotated Corpus of English: The Penn Treebank. Computational Linguistics, 19(2):313–330.

Nivre, J., De Marneffe, M.-C., Ginter, F., Goldberg, Y., Hajic, J., Manning, C. D., McDonald, R. T., Petrov, S., Pyysalo, S., Silveira, N., et al. (2016). Universal dependencies v1: A multilingual treebank collection. In LREC.

Oepen, S., Flickinger, D., Toutanova, K., and Manning, C. D. (2004). Lingo redwoods. Research on Language and Computation, 2(4):575–596.

Sulger, S., Butt, M., King, T. H., Meurer, P., Laczkó, T., Rákosi, G., Dione, C. B., Dyvik, H., Rosén, V., De Smedt, K., et al. (2013). Pargrambank: The pargram parallel treebank. In Proceedings of the 51st Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers), volume 1, pages 550–560.

Van Valin, Jr., R. D. (2005). Exploring the Syntax-Semantics Interface. Cambridge University Press.

Van Valin, Jr., R. D. (2010). Role and Reference Grammar as a framework for linguistic analysis. In Heine, B. and Narrog, H., editors, The Oxford Handbook of Linguistic Analysis, pages 703–738. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Van Valin, Jr., R. D. and LaPolla, R. (1997). Syntax: Structure, meaning and function. Cambridge University Press.

Citeringar i Crossref