The Orthogonal Constraints Problem with the Constraint Approach to Proxy-based Volume Haptics and the Sol

Karljohan Lundin
Norrköping Visualization and Interaction Studio, Linköping University, Sweden

Matthew Cooper
Norrköping Visualization and Interaction Studio, Linköping University, Sweden

Anders Ynnerman
Norrköping Visualization and Interaction Studio, Linköping University, Sweden

Ladda ner artikelhttp://www.ep.liu.se/ecp_article/index.en.aspx?issue=016;article=009

Ingår i: SIGRAD 2005 The Annual SIGRAD Conference Special Theme - Mobile Graphics

Linköping Electronic Conference Proceedings 16:9, s. 45-49

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Publicerad: 2005-11-23


ISSN: 1650-3686 (tryckt), 1650-3740 (online)


Recently the constraint approach to proxy-based volume haptics was introduced which provided a stable and effective means of conveying information about volumetric data through a haptic instrument. In this paper we present a proof that the approach is incapable of handling nonorthogonal constraints and discuss the implications of this restriction in detail. We also describe how full utilization of haptics applications in which multiple properties are used to enhance the understanding of complex data requires the use of non-orthogonal constraints. We then show how proxybased volume haptics can be modified to allow for general constraints through the introduction of haptic primitives used to model the constraints. By balancing the forces exerted by the primitives on the proxy continuously; nonorthogonal constraints can be handled.

CR Categories: H.5.2 [Information Interfaces and Presentation]: User Interfaces; I.3.6 [Computer Graphics]: Methodology and Techniques—Interaction techniques; I.3.7 [Computer Graphics]: Three-Dimensional Graphics and Realism—Virtual reality.


Proxy-based volume haptics; orthogonal constraints; haptic primitives


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