Creating and Evaluating a Synthetic Norwegian Clinical Corpus for De-Identification

Synnøve Bråten

Wilhelm Wie

Hercules Dalianis

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Ingår i: Proceedings of the 23rd Nordic Conference on Computational Linguistics (NoDaLiDa), May 31-June 2, 2021.

Linköping Electronic Conference Proceedings 178:22, s. 222-230

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Publicerad: 2021-05-21

ISBN: 978-91-7929-614-8

ISSN: 1650-3686 (tryckt), 1650-3740 (online)


Building tools to remove sensitive information such as personal names, addresses, and telephone numbers - so called Protected Health Information (PHI) - from clinical free text is an important task to make clinical texts available for research. These de-identification tools must be assessed regarding their quality in the form of the measurements precision and recall. To assess such tools, gold standards - annotated clinical text - must be available. Such gold standards exist for larger languages. For Norwegian, however, there are no such resources. Therefore, an already existing Norwegian synthetic clinical corpus, NorSynthClinical, has been extended with PHIs and annotated by two annotators, obtaining an inter-annotator agreement of 0.94 F1-measure. In total, the corpus has 409 annotated PHI instances and is called NorSynthClinical PHI. A de-identification hybrid tool (machine learning and rule-based methods) for Norwegian was developed and trained with open available resources, and obtained an overall F1-measure of 0.73 and a recall of 0.62, when tested using NorSynthClinical PHI. NorSynthClinical PHI is made open and available at Github to be used by the research community.


de-identification tool, Norwegian, synthetic gold standard, clinical text


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