Effect of Atmosphere on Torrefaction of Oil Palm Wastes

Yoshimitsu Uemura
Chemical Engineering Department, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Malaysia

Wissam N. Omar
Chemical Engineering Department, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Malaysia

Noor Aziah Bt Othman
Chemical Engineering Department, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Malaysia

Suzana Bt Yusup
Chemical Engineering Department, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Malaysia

Toshio Tsutsui
Chemical Engineering Department, Kagoshima University, Japan

Ladda ner artikelhttp://dx.doi.org/10.3384/ecp11057516

Ingår i: World Renewable Energy Congress - Sweden; 8-13 May; 2011; Linköping; Sweden

Linköping Electronic Conference Proceedings 57:69, s. 516-523

Visa mer +

Publicerad: 2011-11-03

ISBN: 978-91-7393-070-3

ISSN: 1650-3686 (tryckt), 1650-3740 (online)


Torrefaction is a low temperature treatment for lignocellulosic biomass at lower temperatures between 473 K and 573 K under an inert atmosphere; which has been found to be effective not only for improving the quality of lignocellulosic solid fuels; such as their energy density and shelf life; but also to make them useful as a feedstock for further decomposition such as gasification and liquefaction. Although more than ten papers on this subject have been published in the last several years; in all of these studies; the atmosphere has been inert (nitrogen). When we try to utilize waste thermal sources; such as flue gas from boilers for torrefaction; the gas contains some components other than nitrogen such as oxygen; carbon dioxide and water vapor. The most serious problem is thought to be the existence of oxygen in the gas. In this study; torrefaction of Malaysian oil palm wastes was carried out in a fixed bed tubular reactor under oxygen/nitrogen flow at a temperature range of 494 to 573 K; in order to clarify the effect of oxygen on torrefaction of lignocellulose. The effects of torrefaction conditions such as atmosphere; temperature and time; on the torrefaction behavior were investigated. The lignocellulosic biomass wastes utilized were mesocarp fiber and kernel shell of oil palm; which are typical agricultural wastes in Malaysia.


Torrefaction; Oil palm waste; Lignocellulose; Oxygen


[1] Suzana Yusup; Mohamad Taufiq Arpin; Yoshimitsu Uemura; Anita Ramli; Lukman Ismail; Siew Hoong Shuit; Kok Tat Tan; Keat Teong Lee; Review on agricultural biomass utilization as energy source in Malaysia; Proceedings for the 16th ASEAN Regional Symposium on Chemical Engineering; Manila; 2009; pp.86-89.

[2] MPOB (Malaysian Palm Oil Board); 2008; “6.8 World Major ProducersOf Palm Oil: 1999 – 2008.” Retrieved Jan 28; 2010 from http://econ.mpob.gov.my/economy/annual/stat2008/ei_world08.htm.

[3] MPOB (Malaysian Palm Oil Board); 2008; “1.2 Area Under Oil Palm [Mature And Immature]: 1975-2008.” Retrieved Jan 28; 2010 from http://econ.mpob.gov.my/economy/annual/stat2008/ei_area08.htm

[4] C. Couhert; S. Salvador; J-M. Commandré; Impact of torrefaction on syngas production from wood; Fuel; 88; 2009; pp. 2286-2290. doi: 10.1016/j.fuel.2009.05.003.

[5] B. Arias; C. Pevida; J. Fermoso; M.G. Plaza; F. Rubiera; J.J. Pis; Influence of torrefaction on the grindability and reactivity of woody biomass; Fuel Processing Technology; 89; 2008; pp. 169-175. doi: 10.1016/j.fuproc.2007.09.002.

[6] T.G. Bridgeman; J. M. Jones; I. Shield; P.T. Williams; Torrefaction of reed canary grass; wheat straw and willow to enhance solid fuel qualities and combustion properties; Fuel; 87; 2008; pp. 844-856. doi: 10.1016/j.fuel.2007.05.041.

[7] Mark J. Prins; Krzysztof J. Ptasinski; Frans J.J.G. Janssen; More efficient biomass gasification via torrefaction; Energy; 31; 2006; pp. 3458-3470. doi: 10.1016/j.energy.2006.03.008.

[8] Ayla Uslu; André P.C. Faaij; P.C.A. Bergman; Pre-treatment technologies; and their effect on international bioenergy supply chain logistics. Techno-economic evaluation of torrefaction; fast pyrolysis and pelletisation; Energy; 33; 2008; pp. 1206-1223. doi: 10.1016/j.energy.2008.03.007.

[9] Mark J. Prins; Krzysztof J. Ptasinski; Frans J.J.G. Janssen; Torrefaction of wood Part 1. Weight loss kinetics; J. Anal. Appl. Pyrolysis; 77; 2006; pp. 28-34.

[10] Mark J. Prins; Krzysztof J. Ptasinski; Frans J.J.G. Janssen; Torrefaction of wood Part 2. Analysis of products; J. Anal. Appl. Pyrolysis; 77; 2006; pp. 34-40.

[11] G. Almeida; J.O. Brito; P. Perré; Alterations in energy properties of eucalyptus wood and bark subjected to torrefaction: The potential of mass loss as a synthetic indicator; Bioresource Technology; 101; 2010; pp. 9778-9784. doi: 10.1016/j.biortech.2010.07.026.

[12] M. Phanphanich; S. Mani; Impact of torrefaction on the grindability and fuel characteristics of forest biomass; Bioresource Technology; 2010; in press.

[13] Wei-Hsin Chen; Po-Chih Kuo; A study on torrefaction of various biomass materials and its impact on lignocellulosic structure simulated by a thermogravimetry; Energy; 35; 2010; pp. 2580-2586. doi: 10.1016/j.energy.2010.02.054.

[14] V. Repellin; A. Govin; M. Rolland; R. Guyonnet; Modelling anhydrous weight loss of wood chips during torrefaction in a pilot kiln; Biomass and Bioenergy; 34; 2010; pp. 602-609. dok: 10.1016/j.biombioe.2010.01.002.

[15] Jian Deng; Gui-jun Wang; Jiang-hong Kuang; Yun-liang Zhang; Yong-hao Luo; Pretreatment of agricultural residues for co-gasification via torrefaction; Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis; 86; 2009; pp. 331-337. doi: 10.1016/j.jaap.2009.08.006.

[16] Felix Fonseca Felfli; Carlos Alberto Luengo; Jose Antonio Suárez; Pedro Anibal Beatón; Wood briquette torrefaction; Energy for Sustainable Development; 9; 2005; pp. 19-22. doi: 10.1016/S0973-0826(08)60519-0.

[17] Y. Uemura; Wissam N. Omar; T. Tsutsui; D. Subbarao; Suzana Yusup; Relationship between calorific value and elementary composition of torrefied lignocellulosic biomass; Journal of Applied Sciences; 10; 2010; in press.

[18] Y. Uemura; Wissam N. Omar; Noor Aziah Othman; Suzana Yusup; T. Tsutsui; Torrefaction of Oil Palm EFB in the Presence of Oxygen; Proceedings for The Second International Symposium on Gasification and Its Application (ISGA2010); Fukuoka; 2010; B43.

[19] M. B. Wahid; Renewable resources from oil palm for the production of biofuels; Proceedings for the International Conference on Biofuels; Kuala Lumpur; 2007; pp.163-169.

[20] Lisardo Núñez-Regueira; Jose A. Rodríguez-Añon; Jorge Proupín-Castiñeiras; A. Vilanova-Diz; N. Montero-Santoveña; Determination of calorific values of forest waste biomass by static bomb calorimetry; Thermochemica Acta; 371; 2001; pp.23-31. doi: 10.1016/S0040-6031(01)00421-X.

[21] Chun Sheng Goh; Kok Tat Tan; Keat Teong Lee; Subhash Bhatia; Bio-ethanol from lignocellulose: Status; perspectives and challenges in Malaysia;” Bioresource Technology; 101; 2010; pp. 4834–4841. doi: 10.1016/j.biortech.2009.08.080.

Citeringar i Crossref