Robin Hood and Donkey Theorems: A Framework for Renewable Energy in Ghana

Emmanuel Ndzibah
Industrial Management Unit,University of Vaasa,Finland

Ladda ner artikelhttp://dx.doi.org/10.3384/ecp11057875

Ingår i: World Renewable Energy Congress - Sweden; 8-13 May; 2011; Linköping; Sweden

Linköping Electronic Conference Proceedings 57:17, s. 875-882

Visa mer +

Publicerad: 2011-11-03

ISBN: 978-91-7393-070-3

ISSN: 1650-3686 (tryckt), 1650-3740 (online)


This study proposes a reliable way of distribution and transfer of electricity cost to both the urban and rural consumers in Ghana. While the Robin Hood principles borrows the essence of the strategy used in this model by a British folklore character by the same name; in providing resources for the deprived and in this context an equitable demand and supply of electricity. The Donkey principle highlights the strategic billing policy used in Ghana; which suggests that urban communities should carry some of the cost burden of energy used by rural communities. The study aims at promoting strategies and educating the public on realistic solutions to the energy crisis. In Ghana; people in the rural communities lacks credit to afford almost any form of renewable energy system due to irregular source of income; although the bulk of consumables (agro based) are produced by them. Infrastructure in some rural communities is inadequate. In contrast; majority of the urban dwellers have access to credit and spend a reasonable amount of their earnings on electricity primarily focused on business and leisure. The study also addresses cost; motive; frequency and reasons for acquiring and using a secondary source of energy (SSE). The results of the study suggest a more just and equal system of distribution and billing of electricity cost.


Robin Hood; Donkey; Secondary Source of Energy (SSE); Distribution; Ghana


[1] G. C. Abavana; Ghana: Energy and Poverty Reduction Strategy; Facilitation Workshop and Policy Dialogue; Ouagadougou; Burkina Faso; 26-29 October 2004.

[2] D. Blamires; Robin Hood: A Hero for All Times; J. Rylands Univ. Lib. of Manchester;1998; ISBN 0-86373-136-8.

[3] S.T. Knight; Robin Hood: A Complete Study of the English Outlaw; Blackwell Publishers; 1994; ISBN 0-631-19486-X.

[4] P.S. Leite; A. Pellechio; L. Zanforlin; G. Begashaw; S. Fabrizio; and J. Harnack; Ghana: Economic Development in a Democratic Environment; 2000; IMF; Washington D.C.

[5] GNA; New National Daily Minimum wage is 3.11 Cedis; 2010; [online] available at:http://www.ghanaweb.com/GhanaHomePage/NewsArchive/artikel.php?ID=175749

[6] E. Ndzibah; Diffusion of solar technology in developing countries – focus group study in Ghana. Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal; Vol 21:6; 2010; pp. 773 – 784. doi: 10.1108/14777831011077637.

[7] S. Srinivasan; Solar Home Systems: Offering Credit and Ensuring Recovery; Refocus; Jan-Feb; 2005 Vol. 6; No. 1; pp. 38 - 41. doi: 10.1016/S1471-0846(05)00293-3.

[8] H. White; The welfare impact of rural electrification: a reassessment of the costs and benefits; 2008; An IEG impact evaluation - The World Bank; Washington D.C.

[9] Wikipedia; Donkey; [online] available at: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Donkey.

[10] CIA-The World Fact Book; Ghana; [online] available at: https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/gh.html

Citeringar i Crossref