The and#8217;Timeand#8217; Dimension of Electricity; Options for the Householder; and Implications for Policy

Sarah J. Darby
Environmental Change Institute, University of Oxford, UK

Ladda ner artikelhttp://dx.doi.org/10.3384/ecp110571086

Ingår i: World Renewable Energy Congress - Sweden; 8-13 May; 2011; Linköping; Sweden

Linköping Electronic Conference Proceedings 57:44, s. 1086-1093

Visa mer +

Publicerad: 2011-11-03

ISBN: 978-91-7393-070-3

ISSN: 1650-3686 (tryckt), 1650-3740 (online)


Electricity has always had a ’time’ dimension for suppliers; and the advent of variable renewable generation may make this dimension more obvious to consumers than it has been in the past. Variable generation increases the need for an ’active demand-side’; in order to balance load and achieve security of supply; and various forms of smart grid are under consideration and trial; possible prototypes for the grids of the future. However; it is often not clear what the implications of an active demand side are for small-scale end-users; although their participation (or cooperation; at a minimum) is seen as essential. As utilities increasingly require the cooperation of their customers in managing distribution networks; so they need to persuade them to adopt new tariffs; technologies and customer-utility relationships. Four options are outlined and discussed; with the aim of developing a better understanding of the social and behavioural dimensions of distributed generation. The options are based on work carried out as part of the SUPERGEN HiDEF (Highly Distributed Energy Future) project in the UK. The focus is on householders; who have been used to a passive relationship with their energy retailers; along with simple tariffs. Policy questions revolve around how to encourage the cooperation of endusers – an ’active demand side’ - and questions of control; equity and data privacy are significant factors in the embryonic public debate over smart grids.


household; electricity; dynamic demand; tariffs


[1] Darby; S. (2008) Why; what; when; how; where and who? Developing UK policy on metering; billing and energy display devices. Proceedings of ACEEE Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Buildings; Asilomar; CA. August 17-22; 2008.

[2] European Technology Platform; http://www.smartgrids.eu/?q=node/163

[3] DECC (2009) Towards a smarter future: government responses to the consultation on electricity and gas smart metering. Department of Energy and Climate Change; London. http://www.decc.gov.uk/assets/decc/Consultations/Smart%20Metering%20for%20Electricity%20and%20Gas/1_20091202094543_e_@@_ResponseElectricityGasConsultation.pdf

[4] DECC (2009) Smarter Grids: the opportunity. Department of Energy and Climate Change; London. http://www.decc.gov.uk/assets/decc/what%20we%20do/uk%20energy%20supply/futureelectricitynetworks/1_20091203163757_e_@@_smartergridsopportunity.pdf

[5] Valocchi M; Schurr A; Juliano J and Nelson E (2009) Plugging in the consumer: innovating utility business models for the future. IBM report; http://www-05.ibm.com/de/energy/pdf/plugging-in-the-consumer.pdf

[6] Isaacson M; Kotewa L; Star A and Ozog M (2006) Changing how people think about energy. Proceedings; ACEEE; 7-124 - 7-139

[7] Torriti J; Hassan MG and Leach M (2010) Demand response experience in Europe: policies; programmes and implementation. Energy 35; 1575-1583. doi: 10.1016/j.energy.2009.05.021.

[8] York D and Kushler M (2005) Exploring the relationship between demand response and energy efficiency: a review of experience and discussion of key issues. American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy research report; http://www.aceee.org/research-report/u052

[9] Shaw R; Attree M; Jackson T and Kay M (2009) The value of reducing distribution losses by domestic load-shifting; a network perspective. Energy Policy 37; 3159-3167. doi: 10.1016/j.enpol.2009.04.008.

[10] Ehrhardt-Martinez K; Donelly KA and Laitner JA (2010) Advanced metering inititatives and residential feedback programs: a meta-review for household electicity-saving opportunities. American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy research report; http://www.aceee.org/research-report/e105

[11] Eyre N; Pavan M and Bodineau L (2009) Energy company obligations to save energy in Italy; the UK and France: what have we learnt? Proceedings; ECEEE 2009 Summer Study.

[12] Herter K (2007) Residential implementation of critical-peak pricing of electricity. Energy Policy 35; 2121-2130. doi: 10.1016/j.enpol.2006.06.019.

[13] PNNL (2007) Pacific Northwest GridWise Testbed demonstration projects. Part 1. Olympic Peninsula project. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. http://gridwise.pnl.gov/docs/op_project_final_report_pnnl17167.pdf

[14] Star A; Evans A; Isaacson M and Kotewa L (2008) Making waves in the heartland: how Illinois’ experience with residential real-time pricing can be a national model. Proceedings; American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy summer study; 2;281-2;291. ACEEE

Citeringar i Crossref