Geothermal Energy Utilization in the United States of America

J. Lund
National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado, USA

Ladda ner artikelhttp://dx.doi.org/10.3384/ecp110571273

Ingår i: World Renewable Energy Congress - Sweden; 8-13 May; 2011; Linköping; Sweden

Linköping Electronic Conference Proceedings 57:6, s. 1273-1280

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Publicerad: 2011-11-03

ISBN: 978-91-7393-070-3

ISSN: 1650-3686 (tryckt), 1650-3740 (online)


Geothermal energy is used for electric power generation and direct utilization in the United States. The present installed capacity (gross) for electric power generation is 3;087 MWe with about 2;024 MWe net delivering power to the gird producing approximately 16;600 GWh per year for a 94% net capacity factor. Geothermal electric power plants are located in Alaska; California; Hawaii; Idaho; Nevada; New Mexico; Oregon; Utah; Wyoming. The direct utilization of geothermal energy including the heating of pools and spas; greenhouses and aquaculture facilities; space heating and district heating; snow melting; agricultural drying; industrial applications and ground-source heat pumps. The installed capacity is approximately 12;610 MWt and the annual energy use is about 56;550 TJ or 15;700 GWh. The largest application is ground-source (geothermal) heat pumps (84% of the energy use). The largest direct-use (excluding geothermal heat pumps) is fish farming (34%); spa and swimming pool heating (28%); and space and district heating (23%). The energy savings from all geothermal use is about 48.5 million barrels (7.3 million tonnes) of equivalent fuel oil per year and reduces air pollution by about 6.65 million tonnes of carbon annually (compared to fuel oil).


Geothermal energy; electric power; direct-use; geothermal heat pumps


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