Participative; co-operative; emancipatory: From participatory design to service design

Stefan Holmlid
Department of Computer and Info Science (IDA), Linköpings universitet

Ladda ner artikel

Ingår i: Conference Proceedings ServDes.2009; DeThinking Service; ReThinking Design; Oslo Norway 24-26 November 2009

Linköping Electronic Conference Proceedings 59:9, s. 105-118

Visa mer +

Publicerad: 2012-09-19

ISBN: 978-91-7519-771-5

ISSN: 1650-3686 (tryckt), 1650-3740 (online)


In the discourse of service design; terms such as platforms; transformation and co-creation have become part of what seems to be an emergent lingua franca. In the participatory design discourse; and the surrounding design traditions; related terms and ideas were developed. The development of the discourse of participatory design; during the last three decades of the 20th century; influence the way we understand the provisions for and possibilities of service design. The analysis is performed along three themes collected from the development of participatory design; and examples of how the legacy of participatory design has been appropriated are given. We conclude that the two disciplines share a basic structure consisting of involvement techniques; cooperative approaches; and emancipatory objectives. Moreover; some areas of future research for service design are identified.


Inga nyckelord är tillgängliga


Artman; H.; Holmlid; S.; Lantz; A.; Lindquist; S.; Swartling; A.; Dovhammar; U. (2009).

Acquisition of usable IT: Acquisition projects to reflect on. Technical Report; HCI-66; Royal Institute of Technology.

Arvola; M.; Holmlid; S.; Nygard; S.; Segelström; F.; & Wentzel; J. (2008). Greta & Torsten: Två personas för äldre användare av hälsans nya verktyg (Greta & Torsten: Two personas mfor elderly users of new tools for health). Project report. Linköping: Santa Anna IT Research Institute AB and Hälsans Nya Verktyg. In Swedish.

Bjerknes; G.; Bratteteig; T. (1995). User Participation and Democracy: A Discussion of Scandinavian Research on System Development. Scandinavian Journal of Information Systems; 7(1):73–98

Bjerknes; G.; Ehn; P.; & Kyng; M. (1987); Computers and Democracy - A Scandinavian Challenge. Aldershot; UK: Avebury

Blomkvist; J.; Holmlid; S. (2009). Exemplars in service design. In proceedings from Nordic Service design confernece; nov 2009; Oslo.

Brandt; E. and Messeter; J. (2004) Facilitating collaboration through design games; In the Proceedings of Participatory Design Conference 2004 (PDC’04); Toronto; Canada

Buchenau M; Fulton Suri J (2000) Experience prototyping. Proceedings of DIS2000 424– 433

Burns; C.; Cottam; H.; Vanstone; C.; Winhall; J. (2006). RED PAPER 02: Transformation Design. Design Council; London. Available at http://www.designcouncil.info/mt/RED/transformationdesign/

Buur; J.; Bødker; S. (2000). From Usability Lab to “Design Collaboratorium”: Reframing Usability Practice. In Proceedings from DIS ’00; pp297-307. New York; ACM

Bødker; S. (1996). Creating Conditions for Participation: Conflicts and Resources in Systems Development. Human-Computer Interaction; 11(3):215-236.

Bødker; S and Grønbæck (1991). Cooperative prototyping: users and designers in mutual activity. International Journal of Man-Machine Studies; 34(3):453-478.

Carroll; J.; M.; and Rosson; M.; B. (2007). Participatory design in community informatics. Design Studies 28:243-261

Cautela; C.; Rizzo; F.; Zurlo; F. (2009). Service design logic: an approach based on the different service categories. IASDR 2009; Seoul.

Cottam; H.; Leadbeater; C. (2004). Health: Co-creating services. Red paper 01; The Design Council. Available at http://www.designcouncil.info/mt/RED/health/REDPaper01.pdf

Ehn; P.; Kyng; M.; (1991). Cardboard Computers: Mocking-itup or Hands-on the Future; In: Greenbaum; J.; Kyng; M.; (1991) Design at Work: Cooperative Design of Computer System; Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Gärtner; J. (1998): Participatory Design in Consulting; Computer Supported Cooperative Work – A Journal of Collaborative Computing; 7(3-4):273-289.

Gärtner; J.; Wagner; I. (1996). Mapping Actors and Agendas: Political Frameworks of Systems Design and Participation. Human-Computer Interaction; vol. 11; pp. 187–214.

Gaver; B.; Dunne; T.; Pacenti; E. (1999). Cultural probes. interactions; 6(1):21-29.

Greenbaum; J.; Kyng; M. (eds) (1991) Design at work: Cooperative design of computer systems. Hillsdale; NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Grønbæk; K. (1991). Prototyping and active user involvement in system development: Towards a cooperative prototyping approach. Ph.D. dissertation; Computer Science Department; Aarhus University; Denmark.

von Hippel; E. (2005) Democratizing Innovation. Cambridge; MA: MIT Press.

Holmlid; S. (2002). Adapting users: Towards a theory of use quality. Linköping Studies in Science and Technology; Diss. No. 765. Linköpings universitet; Sweden.

Holmlid; S. (2004). Issues for cooperative design: A procurement perspective. In Proceedings from Participatory Artful Integration. Interweaving Media; Materials and Practices; Participatory Design Conference PDC 2004; Toronto.

Holmlid; S. (2005). Service Design methods and UCD practice. In Proceedings from User Involvement in e-Government development projects; workshop at IFIP conference Interact; Rome.

Holmlid; S. (2006). Interaction design and design management: Challenges for industrial interaction design in software and system development. Wonderground; Design Research Society International Conference; november 2006; Lisbon.

Holmlid; S. (2007). Interaction design and service design: Expanding a comparison of design disciplines. Nordes 2007.

Holmlid; S. (2008). Towards an understanding of the challenges for design management and service design. Design Management Conference; Paris.

Holmlid; S. (2009a). Managing interaction design and business innovation: Understanding interaction design as a key activity of the operating core. Aesthesis; International journal of art and aesthetic in management and organizational life.

Holmlid; S. (2009b). An active procurer: Advancing cooperative design. In Artman; H.; Holmlid; S.; Lantz; A.; Lindquist; S.; Swartling A.; Dovhammar; U. (eds). Acquisition of usable IT: Acquisition projects to reflect on. Technical Report; HCI-66; Royal Institute of Technology.

Holmlid; S. (2009c). From Interaction to Service. In S. Miettinen; & M. Koivisto (Eds.); Designing Services with Innovative Methods (pp. 78-97). Keuruu; Finland: Otava Book Printing LTD.

Holmlid; S. (2010a). There’s more to services than interaction. Chapter in Meroni; A.; Sangiorgi; D. (eds) Design for Services; Gower Publishing.

Holmlid; S. (2010b). Design och designledning på vägen mot väl designade e-myndigheter. Chapter in Lindblad-Gidlund; K.; Ekelin; A.; Eriksén; S.; Ranerup; A. (eds) Förvaltning och medborgarskap i förändring: Etablerad praxis och kritiska perspektiv. Lund: Studentlitteratur.

Holmlid; S.; & Artman H. (2003). A tentative model for procuring usable systems. In Proceedings of HCI International 2003.

Holmlid; S.; Evenson; S. (2008). Bringing Service Design to Service Sciences; Management and Engineering. In Hefley; B.; Murphy; W. (eds) Service Science; Management and Engineering: Education for the 21st Century; Springer Verlag; pp 341-345.

Hutchins; E. (1995). Cognition in the Wild. Cambridge; Mass.: The MIT Press Iacucci; G; Kuutti; K; Ranta; M (2000). On the move with a magical thing. DIS 00; pp 193- 202.

Junginger; S.; Sangiorgi; D. (2009). Service Design and Organizational Change: Bridging the Gap Between Rigour and Relevance. IASDR 2009; Seoul.

Kensing; F. (1987): Generation of Visions in Systems Development – A Supplement to the Toolbox. In P. Docherty et al. (eds.): Systems Design for Human Development and Productivity: Participation and Beyond. Springer Verlag.

Kensing; F.; Blomberg; J. (1998). Participatory Design: Issues and Concerns. Computer Supported Cooperative Work – A Journal of Collaborative Computing; 7(3-4):167–185.

Kensing; F.; Simonsen; J. and Bødker; K. (1998). MUST - a Method for Participatory Design. In Human-Computer Interaction; 13(2).

Kimbell; L. (2009). Insights from Service Design Practice. 8th European Academy of Design Conference; pp. 249-253). Aberdeen.

Kirshner; D. & Whitson; J. A. (1997) Situated Cognition: Social; semiotic; and psychological perspectives. Mahwah; NJ: Erlbaum

Kyng; M. (1994). Collective resources meets puritanism. Scandinavian Journal of Information Systems; 6(1):85–95

Kyng; M.; Mathiassen; L. (eds) (1997). Computers and design in context. Cambridge; MA: MIT Press.

Lakoff; G.; and Johnson; M. (1999) Philosophy In The Flesh: the Embodied Mind and its Challenge to Western Thought. Basic Books.

Lave; J.; & Wenger; E. (1991). Situated Learning: Legitimate Peripheral Participation. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press

Luck; R. (2003). Dialogue in participatory design. Design Studies 24(6):523-535.

Luck. R. (2007). Learning to talk to users in participatory design situations. Design Studies 28(3):217-242

Magnusson; P.; Matthing; J. and Kristensson; P. (2003); Managing User Involvement in Service Innovation: Experiments with Innovating End-Users; Journal of Service Research; Vol. 6; No. 2; pp. 111-124

Mattelmäki; T (2006). Design Probes. University of Art and Design Helsinki; Helsinki.

Matthing; J.; Sandén; B. and B. Edvardsson (2005). New Service Development: Learning from and with Customers. The International Journal of Services Management.

Miller; S.; Hamilton; R. (2008). Service Innovation and Change from Within. Service Design Network Conference; 2008; Amsterdam. Available at http://conference08.servicedesignnetwork. org/shop_content.php?coID=20&XTCsid=ij5f8urmjhlcp283e9drheo0u4ff7n8o

Moritz; S. (2005). Service Design: Practical Access to an Evolving Field. Cologne; Germany: Köln International School of Design.

Morris; W. (1892). News from nowhere: or; An epoch of rest : being some chapters from a utopian romance. 3. ed. London: Reeves & Turner

Murray; R.; Burns; C.; Vanstone; C.; Winhall; J. (2006). RED REPORT 01:Open Health. Design Council. Available at http://www.designcouncil.info/mt/RED/health/

Pape; T. C.; & Thoresen; K. (1992). Evolutionary prototyping in a change perspective: A tale of three municipalities. Information Technology & People; 6(2-3); 145-170.

Parker; S. and Heapy; J. (2006) The journey to the interface: How public service design can connect users to reform. London: Demos. ISBN 1-84180-164-X. Available at: www.demos.co.uk.

Paulsson; G. (1919). Vackrare vardagsvara. Edited by the Swedish Society of Arts and Crafts; Stockholm. [More Beautiful Things for Everyday Use]

Paulsson; G.; Paulsson; N. (1957). Tingens bruk och prägel. Stockholm: Kooperativa förbundets bokförlag. [The use and qualities of things]

Penin; L.; Tonkinwise; C. (2009). The Politics and Theatre of Service Design. IASDR 2009; Seoul.

Prahalad; C.K.; and Ramaswamy;V. (2004) The Future of Competition: Co-creating unique value with customers; Harvard Business School Press.

Räsänen; M. (2007). Islands of Togetherness: Rewriting Context Analysis. Doctoral thesis; TRITA-CSC-A 2006: 29; Royal Institute of Technology; School of Computer Science and Technology.

Räsänen; M.; Thuresson; B.; Wiberg; A. (2005) Samhörighet på Distans: Slutrapport från ett forskningsprojekt om videomedierad kommunikation på en distribuerad arbetsplats. Technical report NADA; CID.325.

Reich; Y.; Konda; S.; L.; Monarch; I.; A.; Levy; S.; N.; Subrahmanian; E. (1996). Varieties and issues of participation and design. Design Studies 17(2):165-180

Sanders; E. B. N. (2000) Generative tools for CoDesigning. In Collaborative Design; Scrivner; S. Ball; L. and Woodcook; A. (eds) Springer-Verlag London Limited 2000

Sangiorgi; D (2009) Building up a framework for Service Design research; 8th European Academy Of Design Conference; Aberdeen; Scotland

Sangiorgi; D. & Clark; B. (2004) Toward a participatory design approach to service design; Artful Integration. Interweaving Media; Materials and Practices; Participatory Design Conference PDC 2004; Toronto

Schuler; D. & Namioka; A. (1993). Participatory design: Principles and practices. Hillsdale; NJ: Erlbaum.

Segelström; F (2009). Communicating through Visualizations: Service Designers on Visualizing User Research Accepted to DeThinking Design; ReThinking Services – First Nordic Conference on Service Design and Service Innovation; 2009; Oslo.

Segelström; F.; Holmlid; S. (2009). Visualization as tools for research: Service designers on visualizations. Nordes; Nordic Design Research Conference; 2009; Oslo.

Segelström; F.; Holmlid; S.; Alm; B. (2009). Back to the Roots: A Case for a New Ideal for Ethnographic Research for Design. In proceedings from IASDR 2009; Rigor and Relevance in Design; Seoul.

Segelström; F.; Raijmakers. B.; Holmlid; S. (2009). Thinking and Doing Ethnography in Service Design. IASDR 2009; Seoul.

Singleton; B. (2009). Services Design in New Territories. IASDR 2009; Seoul.

Spinuzzi; C. (2002). A Scandinavian Challenge; a US Response: Methodological Assumptions in Scandinavian and US Prototyping Approaches. In Proceedings of SIGDOC ’02; pp208-215 Toronto; Canada; ACM.

Suchman; L. (1987) Plans and Situated Actions: The Problem of Human-Machine Communication. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Suchman; L. (1989) Notes on Computer Support for Cooperative Work; WP-12; University of Jyväskylä; Finland: Department of Computer Science

Vaajakallio; K. (2009). Enacting design: understanding co-design as embodied practice. Engaging Artifacts; NorDes 2009. Oslo; Norway.

Vimarlund; V.; Eriksson; H.; Timpka; T. (2001).Economic Motives to Use a Participatory Design Approach in the Development of Public-Health Information Systems. In MEDINFO 2001; pp.

Wentzel; J.; Holmlid; S. (2009). Speed sketching with designers: User inspired brainstorming. In Proceedings from Designing Pleasurable Products and Interfaces 2009; DPPI 09; Compiegne; France.

Winograd; T. ed (1996). Bringing design to software. ACM; New York:NY.

Winograd; T.; Flores; C. F. (1996). Understanding Computers and Cognition: A New Foundation for Design. Ablex Publishing.

Citeringar i Crossref