Chinese Descriptive and Resultative V-de Constructions. A Dependency-based Analysis

Ruochen Niu
Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China

Ladda ner artikel

Ingår i: Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Dependency Linguistics (Depling 2017), September 18-20, 2017, Università di Pisa, Italy

Linköping Electronic Conference Proceedings 139:19, s. 154-164

Visa mer +

Publicerad: 2017-09-13

ISBN: 978-91-7685-467-9

ISSN: 1650-3686 (tryckt), 1650-3740 (online)


This contribution presents a dependency grammar (DG) analysis of the so-called de-scriptive and resultative V-de constructions in Mandarin Chinese (VDCs); it focuses, in par-ticular, on the dependency analysis of the noun phrase that intervenes between the two predicates in a VDC. Two methods, namely chunking data collected from informants and two diagnostics specific to Chinese, i.e. ba and bèi sentence formation, were used. They were employed to discern which analysis should be preferred, i.e. the ternary-branching analysis, in which the intervening NP (NP2) is a de-pendent of the first predicate (P1), or the small-clause analysis, in which NP2 depends on the second predicate (P2). The results ob-tained suggest a flexible structural analysis for VDCs in the form of “NP1+P1-de+NP2+P2”. The difference in structural assignment is at-tributed to a semantic property of NP2 and the semantic relations it forms with adjacent predicates.


Inga nyckelord är tillgängliga


Emily Bender. 2000. The syntax of Mandarin ba : reconsidering the verbal analysis. Journal of East Asia Linguistics, volume 9 (2), 105-145.

Yuen Ren Chao. 1965. A Grammar of Spoken Chinese. Oakland, California: University of California Press.

Shengshu Ding. 1961. Xiàndài hànyu yufa jianghuà [Lectures on the Modern Chinese Grammar]. Beijing: The Commercial Press.

Xiao Fan. 1993. Fù dòng V-de jù [The verb-copying V-de construction]. Yuyán jiàoxué yu yánjiu [Language Teaching and Linguistic Studies] 4, 57-74.

Zhiwei Feng. 1983. Tesnière de cóngshu guanxi yufa [The dependency grammar of Tesnière]. Dangdài yuyánxué [Contemporary Linguistics] 1, 63-65.

Zhiwei Feng. 1998. Cóngshu guanxi yufa duì jiqì fanyì yánjiu de zuòyòng [The role dependency grammar plays in machine translation research]. Wàiyu xuékn [Foreign Language Research] 1, 18-21.

Zhiwei Feng. 2008. Zìrán yuyán chuli de lìshi yu xiànzhuàng [The past and present of natural language processing]. Zhongguó wàiyu [Foreign Languages in China] 1, 14-22.

Chaim Gaifman. 1965. Dependency systems and phrase-structure systems. Information and Control 8, 304-337.

Grant Goodall. 1986. On argument Structure and L-marking with Mandarin Chinese Ba. Proceedings of NELS17, volume1, 232-242.

Jules Gouguet. 2006. Adverbials and Mandarin argument structure. Empirical Issues in Syntax and Semantics 6, 155-173.

David Hays. 1964. Dependency theory: A formalism and some observations. Language 40, 511–525.

James Huang. 1988. Wo pao de kuài and Chinese phrase structure. Language 2, 274-311.

James Huang, Yen-hui Audrey Li, and Yafei Li. 2009. The Syntax of Chinese. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Richard Hudson. 2007. Language Networks: The New Word Grammar. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Jinyang Jiang and Haitao Liu. 2015. The effects of sentence length on dependency distance, dependency direction and the implications–based on a parallel English–Chinese dependency treebank. Language Sciences 50, 93-104.

Sylvain Kahane. 1996. If HPSG were a dependency grammar… Actes de TALN, Marseille, 22–24, 45–49.

Chao Li. 2015. On the V-DE construction in mandarin Chinese. Lingua Sinica 1: 6, 1-40.

Linding Li. 1986. Xiàndài hànyu jùxíng [The Modern Chinese Constructions]. Beijing: The Commercial Press.

Jinxi Li. 2000/1924. Xinzhù guóyu wénfa [The Grammar of Mandarin Chinese: New Edition]. Beijing: The Commercial Press.

Yafei Li. 1999. Cross-componential Causativity. Natural Language & Linguistic Theory 17 (3),

Yen-hui Audrey Li. 1990. Oder and Constituency in Mandarin Chinese. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 41-59.

James Chaoping Liang. 1971. Prepositions, Co-verbs or Verbs? A Commentary on Chinese Grammar Past and Present. PhD dissertation, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor.

Tao Lin. 2011/1957. Xiàndài hànyu buzúyu li de qingyin xiànxiàng [Grammatical and semantic issues revealed by phonetic reductions in modern Chinese complements], Journal of Peking University 03, 61-74.

Haitao Liu. 1997. Yicún yufa hé jiqì fanyì [Dependency grammar and machine translation]. Yuyán wénzì yìngyòng [Applied Linguistics] 3, 91-95.

Haitao Liu. 2008. Dependency distance as a metric of language comprehension difficulty. Journal of Cognitive Science 2, 159-191.

Jian Kang Loar. 2011. Chinese Syntactic Grammar. New York: Peter Lang.

Igor Mel’cuk and Nikolai Pertsov. 1987. Surface Syntax of English: A Formal Model with the Meaning- Text Framework. Amsterdam: Benjamins.

Timothy Osborne and Shudong Ma. 2015. A DG account of the descriptive and resultative
de-constructions in Chinese. Depling 2015, 261-270.

Jane Robinson. 1970. Dependency structures and transformational rules. Language 46, 259–285.

Yang Shen. 1997. Míngcí duanyu de duochóng yíwèi xíngshì jí ba zì jù de gòuzào guòchéng yu yuyì jieshì [Formation process of ba-constructions and its semantic interpretation] Zhongguó yuwén [Studies of the Chinese Language] 6, 402-414.

Yinxin Sun. 2005. Tóngxíngyìgòu de “NS + V + ‘de’ + NP + VP” jù [Four structures of the “NS + V +‘de’ + NP + VP”]. Lìyún yuyán xuékan [Academic Journal of Liyun (Language Volume)] 1, 125-159.

Lucien Tesnière. 2015/1959. Elements of structural syntax (translated by Timothy Osborne and Sylvain Kahane). Amsterdam & Philadelphia: John Benjamins.

Li Wang. 1985. Zhongguó xiàndài yufa [China Modern Grammar]. Beijing: The Commercial Press.

Fengsheng Xue. 1987. Shì lùn ba zì jù de yuyì tèxìng [Study on the semantic features of ba-constructions]. Yuyán jiàoxué yu yánjiu [Language Teaching and Linguistic Studies] 1, 4-22.

Yufeng Zhang. 2006. Xiàndài hànyu jùzi yánjiu [Research on Modern Chinese Sentences]. Shanghai: Xuelin Press.

Dexi Zhu. 1982. Yufa jiangyì [Lectures on Grammar]. Beijing: The Commercial Press.

Citeringar i Crossref