The Role of Service Design in the Effectual Journey of Social Entrepreneurs

Gerasimos Balis
Lancaster University, Lancaster, UK

Ladda ner artikel

Ingår i: ServDes.2014 Service Future; Proceedings of the fourth Service Design and Service Innovation Conference; Lancaster University; United Kingdom; 9-11 April 2014

Linköping Electronic Conference Proceedings 99:9, s. 89-99

Visa mer +

Publicerad: 2014-06-25

ISBN: 978-91-7519-280-2

ISSN: 1650-3686 (tryckt), 1650-3740 (online)


The paper explores the common ground between the fields of social entrepreneurship and service design; in order to understand how the role of designers in social innovation projects relates to that of social entrepreneurs and identify new ways to connect the design practice with social transformation and social impact. To achieve this; the construct of effectuation in entrepreneurship is discussed; followed by suggestions on how it reveals fertile areas for research across the fields of service design and social entrepreneurship.


social entrepreneurship; service design; effectuation


Bacq; S.; & Janssen; F. (2011). The multiple faces of social entrepreneurship: A review of definitional issues based on geographical and thematic criteria. Entrepreneurship & Regional Development; 23(5-6); 373-403.

Bitner; M. J.; Ostrom; A. L.; & Morgan; F. N. (2008). Service blueprinting: a practical technique for service innovation. California Management Review; 50(3); 66.

Bruyat; C.; & Julien; P. A. (2001). Defining the field of research in entrepreneurship. Journal of business venturing; 16(2); 165-180.

Burns; C.; Cottam; H.; Vanstone; C.; & Winhall; J. (2006). Transformation design. RED paper; London: Design Council.

Chick; A. (2012). Design for social innovation: Emerging principles and approaches. Iridescent: Icograda Journal of Design Research; 2(1). 52-64.

Cornelius; B.; Landström; H.; & Persson; O. (2006). Entrepreneurial studies: The dynamic research front of a developing social science. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice; 30(3); 375-398.

Cottam; H.; & Leadbeater; C. (2004). Red Paper 01 Health: co-creating services. Design Council. London: Design Council.

Davidsson; P. (2005). The types and contextual fit of entrepreneurial processes. International Journal of Entrepreneurship Education; 2(4). Senate Hall Academic Publishing PAGES.

Dees; J. G. (1998). The Meaning of ‘Social Entrepreneurship’. Stanford University: Draft Report for the Kauffman Center for Entrepreneurial Leadership.

Dew; N.; & Sarasvathy; S. D. (2002). What effectuation is not: Further development of an alternative to rational choice. Paper presented at the Academy of Management Conference; Denver.

Doyle; P. C; & Ho; M. (2010). How opportunities develop in social entrepreneurship. Entrepreneurship theory and practice; 34(4); 635-659.

EMUDE (2006) Emerging User Demands for Sustainable Solutions European Research. Project Activity Report. Retrieved from http://cordis.europa.eu/documents/documentlibrary/126376051EN6.pdf

European Union Commission. (2010). Brussels; 6.10. 2010; COM (2010) 546 final. Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament; the Council; the European Economic and Social Committee and Committee of the Regions. Europe 2020 Flagship Initiative Innovation Union.

Freire; K.; & Sangiorgi; D. (2010). Service design and healthcare innovation: From consumption to coproduction and co-creation. In 2nd Nordic Conference on Service Design and Service Innovation; Linköping; Sweden.

Fisher; G. (2012). Effectuation; causation; and bricolage: A behavioral comparison of emerging theories in entrepreneurship research. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice; 36(5); 1019-1051.

Fletcher; K. T.; & Goggin; P. A. (2001). The dominant stances on ecodesign: a critique. Design Issues; 17(3); 15-25.

Hoogendoorn; B.; Pennings; E.; & Thurik; A. R. (2010). What do we know about social entrepreneurship; an analysis of empirical research. International Review of Entrepreneurship; 8(2); 71-112.

Jegou; F.; & Manzini; E. (2008). Collaborative services: Social innovation and design for sustainability. ; Milano: Edizioni POLI.design.

Kirzner; I. M. (1978). Competition and entrepreneurship. Chicago: University of Chicago press.

Knight; F. H. (1921). Risk; uncertainty and profit. New York: Hart; Schaffner and Marx.

Leadbeater; C. W. (1997). The rise of the social entrepreneur (No. 25). London: Demos.

Low; M. B.; & MacMillan; I. C. (1988). Entrepreneurship: Past research and future challenges. Journal of management; 14(2); 139-161.

Manzini; E. (2007). Design research for sustainable social innovation. In Michel R.; Ed Design Research Now (pp. 233-245). Birkhäuser Basel.

Martin; R. L. & Osberg; S. (2007). Social Entrepreneurship: The Case for Definition. Stanford Social Innovation Review; 5(2); 28-39.

Mair; J.; & Marti; I. (2006). Social entrepreneurship research: A source of explanation; prediction; and delight. Journal of world business; 41(1); 36-44.

Mair; J.; Robinson; J.; & Hockert; K. (Eds.). (2006). SocialEentrepreneurship. New York: Palgrave Macmillan

McManus J & Piet J(2011). Local Authorities: Tackling Engagement Challenges Together. Journal of The Service Design Network: Touchpoint; 3(1); 36-37.

Mitchell; R. K.; Busenitz; L. W.; Bird; B.; Marie Gaglio; C.; McMullen; J. S.; Morse; E. A.;& Smith; J. B. (2007). The central question in entrepreneurial cognition research 2007. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice; 31(1); 1-27.

Mulgan; G. (2006). The process of social innovation. Innovations; 1(2); 145-162.

Murray; R.; Caulier-Grice; J.; & Mulgan; G. (2010). The open book of social innovation. National London: Endowment for Science; Technology and the Art.

Nicholls; A. (2004). Social entrepreneurship: The emerging landscape. Financial Times Handbook of Management (3rd Edition): 636–643. Harlow: Financial Times/Prentice Hall.

Nicholls; A. (Ed.). (2006). Social Entrepreneurship: New Models of Sustainable Social Change. USA: Oxford University Press.

Papanek; V. (1983). Design for human scale. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold.

Roberts; D. & Woods; C. (2005). Changing the world on a shoestring: the construct of social entrepreneurship; University of Auckland Business Review; Autumn; 45-51.

Sangiorgi; D. (2010). Service design research pioneers: An overview of service design research developed in italy since the ‘90s. Design Research Journal; 1(10); 26-33.

Sangiorgi; D. (2011). Transformative services and transformation design. International Journal of Design; 5(2); 29-40.

Sarasvathy; S. D. (2001). Causation and effectuation: Toward a theoretical shift from economic inevitability to entrepreneurial contingency. Academy of management Review; 26(2); 243-263.

Sarasvathy; S. D. (2003). Entrepreneurship as a science of the artificial. Journal of Economic Psychology; 24(2); 203-220.

Sarasvathy; S. D. (2008). Effectuation: Elements of entrepreneurial expertise. Edward Elgar Publishing.

SELUSI (2011). Social entrepreneurs as lead users for service innovation European Policy Brief European Comission Retrieved From ftp://ftp.cordis.europa.eu/pub/fp7/ssh/docs/selusi-policy-brief_en.pdf

Schumpeter J.A. (1934). The Theory of Economic Development: An Inquiry into Profits; Capital; Credit; Interest; and the Business Cycle. New York: Oxford University Press.

Simon; H. A. (1996). The sciences of the artificial. Cambridge; Mass: MIT press.

Stryjan; Y. (2006). The practice of social entrepreneurship: notes towards a resourceperspective. In Steyaert; C.; & Hjorth; D. (Eds.) (2007). Entrepreneurship as social change: A third new movements in entrepreneurship book (35–55.). Cheltenham and Northampton: Edward Elgar Publishing.

Steyaert; C.; & Katz; J. (2004). Reclaiming the space of entrepreneurship in society: geographical; discursive and social dimensions. Entrepreneurship & regional
development; 16(3); 179-196.

Tan; L.; & Szebeko; D. (2009). Co-designing for dementia: The Alzheimer 100 project. Australasian Medical Journal; 1(12); 185-198.

Thorpe; A.; & Gamman; L. (2011). Design with society: why socially responsive design is good enough. CoDesign; 7(3-4); 217-230.

Thorpe; A.; & Gamman; L. (2013). Learning Together: Students and Community groups codesigning for carbon reduction in London Borough of Camden. In E.;Manzini & E.; Staszowski (Eds.) Public and Collaborative; exploring the intersection of design; social innovation and pubic policy (51-65); DESIS Network.

Young; D. R. (1983). If not for profit; for what? Lexington; MA: Lexington Books

Ucbasaran; D.; Westhead; P.; & Wright; M. (2001). The focus of entrepreneurial research: contextual and process issues. Entrepreneurship theory and practice; 25(4); 57-80.

Van de Ven; A. H.; & Engleman; R. M. (2004). Event-and outcome-driven explanations of entrepreneurship. Journal of Business Venturing; 19(3); 343-358.

Vanstone; C. & Winhall; J. (2006). RED Design Notes 01. Activmobs; London: Design Council.

Citeringar i Crossref